UltraPure Steam in Annealing
Annealing and passivation are techniques used to repair atomic defects within the crystal that propagate into the wafer macrostructure, reducing efficiencies in microelectronics and photovoltaic cells. High temperature annealing can increase carrier lifetimes by injecting H into the Si/SiO2 interface. Passivation, or thermal annealing, of the interface limits hole/electron recombination, removes dangling bonds, and reduces vacancies and dislocations at grain boundaries.
Annealing typically involves heating the wafer and saturating the chamber with a gas or water vapor that can then be incorporated into the film. RASIRC products deliver ultrapure steam at precise flow rates for this process.